Go straight to articles on non-pharmaceutical influenza prevention

Personal Hygiene Messages


  • Frequent hand washing
  • Always cough and sneeze into disposable tissues
  • Cough and sneeze into your elbow in the absence of tissues
  • Wash your hands with soap and water regularly
  • If you have influenza, stay away from crowded, public places, and wear a face mask when you see your doctor to stop the spread of disease
  • Don't shake hands with unwashed hands

    Community mitigation strategies

    Markel et al JAMA. 2007;298(6):644-65: Evidence that these were effective in the 1918 -19 pandemic

  • Isolation of cases and close contacts
  • Social distancing by school, preschool, day care closures
  • Social distancing of adults by workplace avoidance, cancellation of gatherings

    Non Pharmaceutical Influenza Prevention

    Recent Articles

    Boyce JM.  Alcohol-Based Handrubs and Influenza A.  mSphere. 2019 Nov 27;4(6). pii: e00787-19. Full text 

    Liang M, et al. Efficacy of face mask in preventing respiratory virus transmission: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Travel Med Infect Dis. 2020 May 27:101751. Full text

    Lim VW, et al.  Passive immune therapy and other immunomodulatory agents for the treatment of severe influenza: Systematic review and meta-analysis.  Influenza Other Respir Viruses. 2019 Nov 16.  Full text More 

    Noh JY, et al. Social Distancing against COVID-19: Implication for the Control of Influenza. J Korean Med Sci. 2020 May 18;35(19):e182. Full text